Melatonin is not a hormon on its own
Melatonin from izflnyava important physiological functions – regulation on aez and circadian rhythms, half of a mankind and reproduction, immunomodulatory action and participation in the procession on tumorestin and aging. Actually, on melatonin medications from the two main types of membrane-receptor, for which you can choose, what is the function of the retinal function, circadian rhythms, and reproduction. 11, 12, 13 It was established, what melatonin is the ligand and for the retreated retinoidni receptors, and for the repetition of retinoidni receptors. cytosing of belt calmodulin and affecting Ca2 +-dependent signaling of the signal.14 Through an autoradiographic analysis of sa, open the melatonin receptor for melatonin in various regions of the brain, ovary nucleus and nucleus 15, 16, 17, 18 rkadnite rhythms nenevronalnite – reproduktivnata function and Tezi in perifernite tkani uchastvat in control at srdechnata deynost and telesnata temperatura.10 18
Regulation on prisma and circadian rhythms. Cyclical release of melatonin from epiphysate is the result of periodic neuronal signals, generating a suprachiasmatic nucleus (biological chapel) on the hypothalamus. Present in the case of svetlina from intrapinealitis, sympathetic nerves and termination of liberation of norepinephrine, the coyto through receptor mediation is signaled by the mechanism of the activator of the biosynthesis on melatonin until it reaches peak strength. Presenting signals from a photosensitive cell in the light of the retinate, released on norepinephrine, and, subsequently, in the melatonin product, the coyto reached the minimum level. Tezi is precisely regulated 24 hours and melatonin and the rhythm is edited by information about the den (niski niva on melatonin) and night (visoki niva on melatonin) .9, 10, 18 It has been established .19, 20
Reproduced and reproduced. It is assumed that functions on the epiphysate of transient sexual dysfunction, dated more than 1898, for example, described a 4.5-year-old case, half a year, the function of the epiphisate was found. 21 Rедиditsa like cases say that from one country, the deficit on melatonin e, it is activated from the hypophyseal-gonadnite function. From a friend country, in cases of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, intent to niva on serumniy melatonin.22 Presumably, melatoninut stimulate direct ovarianlnat function, biosynthesis on progesterone and participation in intraovarial regulation on steroidogenesis 23.
Melatonin is a multifactorial antioxidant. Osven through chernodrobnite monooxygenase melatonint Mauger yes se metabolized by intra- and ekstratselularno neenzimen mehanizm through Direct zahvaschane on free radicals or under the action to another molecule to oxidatively deystvaschi cyclic 3-hidroksimelatonin and derivatives kinuraminovi .Schita se, che Tezi produkti (N1-acetyl -N2-formyl-5-methoxyquinuramine (AFMK) and N1-acetyl-5-methoxyquinuramine (AMK)) sa dissuade from direct exposure to the antioxidant effect on hormone hormones (Fig. 2).
It is not the process itself on the basis of two products that are captured by free radicals. AFMK and AMK will detect and inactivate not the reactive oxygen itself (• OH, CO3 • -, O2 • -), but also the nitrogen radicals (• NO, • NO2), both peroxynitrite (ONOO -). 25-28 Ty catonivat on circulatory melatonin is higher than that of nivat on oxidant, forming a course on metabolism, directly taking on oxidant and kinuraminium, it does not have the same antioxidant mechanism on melatonin. on redox sensitive enzimi. Melatonin stimulating expression of genes for antioxidant enzymes, cato-glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, Zn-, Cu- and / or Mn-superoxide dismutase -30204 -α-3 -α-reductase; 5- and 12-lipoxygenate, NO-synthaza.38,30 Through the activation of the enzyme, γ-glutamylcysteine synthase and glucose-6-phosphate, dehydrogenase; .38 In Re ultat from potiskane on PROOXIDANT enzimi se namalyava produktsiyata to NO •, on Niegowa okislitelno deystvasch metabolite peroxynitrite, and somehow svobodnoradikalovite produkti • NO2, CO3 • – and • OH.29
Of particular interest in the last year of the representation of the so-called. mitochondrial effects on melatonin. Mitochondrialnato dihatelna veriga is mainly responsible for the active oxygen and nitrogen formation in the cell. A specific mitochondrial isoform for NO-synthazate e is dissuaded for products for NO • – a physiological regulator for cellular doshan and for products for ATP is physiological. It has been established that the increase in NO • above the physiological field of the Inhibira I, III and IV complex on the dihatelinate Veriga, followed by disconnection to free radical oxidation and damage to mitochondrial protein and mDNA. Melatonin at a concentration close to physiologic (1 nM), lipidnata peroxidation permeation on the membrane structure in the mitochondria, and the preparant from oxidatively damaged mDNA and proteinite. From a friend country, melatonin has been affected by redox-active components in mitochondria, by katosi filling the products with NO • and keeping to normal Nivat on reduction glutathione and coenzyme Q10.40-44
Another aspect of the antioxidant effect on melatonin is the potentiation of the effect of classical antioxidants (ascorbate, α-tocopherol, reduci glutathione) and catotelectron donor with typechen regenerant.39, 44 ––––––––––––––––– For reduction of glutathione. 45 Another advantage is to pro clastic antioxidants; for him, prooxidant activity has been proven. Classic antioxidants are active in reduced concentrations. The trace is captured on the oxidative body and is oxidized, and after the regenerated form of the reductioniranate, the form of acid and electron transfer with the participation of an antioxidant, is reduced, the reductioniran glutathione. When determining the condition (in oxidized condition), the test is non-inferior and will oxidize the cells of the biomolecule and turn off the process on free radical oxidation. In toxicology, classic antioxidants are potential prooxidants. Melatoninut, for being different from tyah, is not “Consumira” reduced glutathione after regeneration, but it is transformed into a product, izsyavyavaschi antioxidant activity.44, 46
For about three centuries, French philosopher René Descartes described the pinealnata ori cathode, “sitting for dushat,” but after ottogava mined a single period from time to time and barely identified melatoninut, substance, which is secretary from epiphizate. He brought the eve known, melatonin et neurohormone, which determines the role of regulatasia in circadian rhythm, eating and vigorously, reproduction, tumor removal and aging. Everything is still unclear about the lack of a “silent role” in the physiology and pathophysiology, but it is clear that the doctuque determines the inadequate meaning of catomonorus, its role and the importance of rhythms and circadian rhythms.